Friday, December 9, 2016

[Fungi • 2016] Amanita castanea • A New Species and Four New Records of Amanita (Amanitaceae; Basidiomycota) from Northern Thailand

Amanita castanea  
Thongbai, Tulloss, Raspé & K.D. Hyde  

Mushrooms belonging to the genus Amanita were collected during a fungal biodiversity study in northern Thailand in 2012–2014. Morphological characteristics and molecular phylogenetic analyses were used to identify the mushrooms to species. Amanita castanea is described as new to science and compared with phenetically and phylogenetically similar species. It is assignable to Amanita stirps Citrina within Amanita series Mappae. Four other species, A. concentrica, A. rimosa, A. cf. rubromarginata and A. zangii are first reports for Thailand; detailed morphological and molecular data are provided for the Thai material.

Key words: Amanitaceae, ectomycorrhizal fungi, morphology, phylogeny

FIGURE 1. Basidiomata of Amanita castanea.
  a young and mature basidiomata. b–d basidiospores in 5% KOH. fh basidiospores in congo red. ik basidiospores in Melzer’s reagent. lo basidia and subhymenium at different stages of development. (a–o: BZ201405, holotype) (scale bar: a = 2 cm, b–k = 6 µm, l–o = 10 µm). 

Amanita castanea Thongbai, Tulloss, Raspé & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov.
Index Fungorum number: IF552009; MycoBank: MB 818356; Facesoffungi number: FoF 02074

Etymology:— castanea’ refers to the chestnut color of the pileus.
Holotype:— THAILAND, Chiang Mai Province, Doi-saket District, Thep-sadet Subdistrict, elev. 1300 m, 30 June 2014, B. Thongbai (MFLU15-1424!).

Habitat: scattered on the ground in forest of Fagaceae. 

 Four New Records
Amanita concentrica T. Oda, C. Tanaka & Tsuda, Mycoscience. 43 (1): 81, 2002a (Figure 3) 
Amanita rimosa P. Zhang & Zhu L. Yang, Fungal Diversity. 42: 124, 2010 (Figure 4)

Amanita cf. rubromarginata Har. Takah., Mycoscience. 45 (6): 372, 2004 (Figure 5)
Amanita zangii Zhu L. Yang, T.H. Li & X.L. Wu, Fungal Diversity. 6: 160, 2001 (Figure 6)  

In the present study, we document a novel species and four first records of Amanita species in northern Thailand. Species circumscriptions and identification are supported by both phylogenic and morphological evidence. One interesting exception might be Amanita cf. rubromarginata. The characteristics of the Thai collections, especially the colors of the pileus, agree well with the type description. However, additional collections made in southwestern Japan indicate that the colors of aging A. rubromarginata might be more different from the Thai collections than originally thought. According to illustrations in the recent book of SE Japanese fungi (Terashima et al. 2016), the center of the cap can be nearly black and the margin, olive. These colors were never observed in the Thai material. Therefore, more collections should be made from Thailand to assess the color variation.

 Further molecular studies with multiple genes that avoid loci of the nuclear ribosomal DNA cistron and expanded taxon sampling are needed to resolve the tree topology for some Amanita sections, e.g. Amanita sect. Caesareae (Sánchez-Ramírez et al. 2014, 2015), A. sect. Validae series Mappae (Drehmel et al. 1999, Hughes et al. 2013, Tulloss & Yang 2016d), A. sect. Lepidella sensu Bas (Tulloss et al. 2016) and A. sect. Phalloideae (Cai et al. 2014, Tulloss et al. 2016). A possible set of four protein-coding loci was proposed by Sánchez-Ramírez et al. (2014) and utilized in (Sánchez-Ramírez et al. 2015).

 Benjarong Thongbai, Rodham E. Tulloss, Steven L. Miller, Kevin D. Hyde, Jie Chen, Rui-Lin Zhao and Olivier Raspé. 2016. A New Species and Four New Records of Amanita (Amanitaceae; Basidiomycota) from Northern Thailand.
 Phytotaxa286(4); 211–231. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.286.4.1

[Ichthyology • 2016] Plectranthias takasei • A New Species of Anthiadine Fish (Teleostei: Serranidae) from southern Japan

Hinomaru Perchlet |  Plectranthias takasei  
Gill, Tea & Senou, 2016  


Plectranthias takasei is described from two specimens collected in Izu Oceanic Park, Sagami Bay, Honshu, Japan. It is distinguished from congeners in having the following combination of characters: dorsal rays X,15; no fleshy flaps on dorsal-fin spines; pectoral rays 13, all unbranched; branched caudal-fin rays 8 + 7; lateral line scales 28 (including intermittent and terminal pitted scales); circumpeduncular scales 12; fourth dorsal-fin spine longest; and preopercle without antrorse spines or serrations ventrally, with 2–3 weak serrations or crenulations posteriorly.

Keywords: Pisces, ichthyology, taxonomy, morphology, Izu Oceanic Park, Sagami Bay, Honshu

FIGURE 3. Plectranthias takasei, underwater photo in 60 m, Izu Oceanic Park, Sagami Bay, Honshu, Japan.
photo by W. Takase DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4205.4.3 

Plectranthias takasei, new species
New standard Japanese name: Hinomaru-hanadai
English common name: Hinomaru Perchlet

Diagnosis. The following combination of characters distinguishes P. hinomaru from congeners: dorsal rays X,15; no fleshy flaps on dorsal-fin spines; pectoral rays 13, all unbranched; branched caudal-fin rays 8 + 7; lateral line scales 28 (including intermittent and terminal pitted scales); circumpeduncular scales 12; fourth dorsal-fin spine longest; and preopercle without antrorse spines or serrations ventrally, with 2–3 weak serrations or crenulations posteriorly.

Habitat and distribution. Plectranthias takasei is known only from Izu Ocean Park, where it has been collected and photographed on rocky reefs at depths of 48–60 metres.

Etymology. The species is named for Mr. Wataru Takase, who collected the holotype. The Japanese standard name and English common names refer to the prominent red spot on the side, which is reminiscent of the red disk (rising sun) in the Japanese flag (commonly called Hinomaru, ‘the sun disk’). 

Gill, Anthony C., Yi-Kai Tea & Hiroshi Senou. 2016. Plectranthias takasei, New Species of Anthiadine Fish from southern Japan (Teleostei: Serranidae). Zootaxa. 4205(4); 349–356. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4205.4.3

Thursday, December 8, 2016

[Herpetology • 2014] Calotes manamendrai • A New Calotes Species from Sri Lanka with a Redescription of Calotes liolepis Boulenger, 1885

Manamendra-Arachchi’s Whistling Lizard  | Calotes manamendrai 
Amarasinghe & Karunarathna, 2014 

FIG. 4. — Calotes manamendrai sp. nov., a live female (not collected) at the type locality (Riverstone, Knuckles massif, Sri Lanka).

Based on morphological evidence, we describe a new species of agamid lizard of the genus Calotes that is restricted to a single site on the northern face of the Knuckles massif (~1000 m above sea level) of Sri Lanka. The genus Calotes consists of eight species in Sri Lanka, six of which appear to form an endemic radiation. The new species, Calotes manamendrai, most closely resembles Calotes liolepis Boulenger, 1885, which is widely distributed in mid-elevations in the central highlands, lowland rain forests, and a few isolated moist forests in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. Females of Calotes manamendrai sp. nov. differ from the females of Calotes liolepis in having nonenlarged pectoral scales; keeled dorsal scales on the body; smaller midgular scales than the rest of the throat scales; brown color, seven distinct stripes each side on gular area; black color shoulder pit; and upper arm with carinate ventral scales. Finally, we provide a complete redescription for Calotes liolepis based on the adult female syntypes.

Keywords: Agamidae, Biogeography, Calotes manamendrai sp. nov, Conservation, Knuckles massif, Systematics

Etymology.— The species epithet is an eponym Latinized in the genitive singular, honoring Kelum Nalinda Manamendra–Arachchi for his generous teaching and guidance in taxonomic studies for the first two authors as well as his remarkable contributions to herpetology, zooarchaeology, and biodiversity conservation in Sri Lanka. Suggested English name: Manamendra-Arachchi’s Whistling Lizard; Sinhala (local) name: Manamendra-Arachchige Uruwan Katussa.

 A. A. Thasun Amarasinghe and D. M. S. Suranjan Karunarathna. 2014. A New Calotes Species from Sri Lanka with a Redescription of Calotes liolepis Boulenger, 1885.
 Herpetologica. 70(3); 323-338. DOI:  10.1655/HERPETOLOGICA-D-13-00087

[Botany • 2015] Zingiber nitens • A New Species of Zingiber (Zingiberaceae) from Bolikhamsai Prov., Lao P.D.R.

 Zingiber nitens  M.F.Newman

 Zingiber nitens M.F.Newman from Lao P.D.R. is described and illustrated. 

Keywords. IUCN conservation assessment, Lao P.D.R., new species, Zingiber

Zingiber nitens M.F.Newman, sp. nov. Belongs to Zingiber section Dymczewiczia (Horan.) Benth. because the inflorescences are produced terminally on the leafy shoots; similar to Zingiber capitatum Roxb. in its slender habit with narrow leaves and terminal inflorescences but differs from it by its glabrous, glossy, dark green bracts which remain green even at fruiting (not green bracts which turn red at fruiting, and are sparsely to densely villose at the margins).
TYPE: Originally a living collection from Lao P.D.R., Bolikhamxai prov., Khamkeut district, Ban Thongpe, Nakai-Nam Theun NPA, Lao-Vietnam Border Protected Area, primary evergreen forest along river, 1 August 2011, Lamxay, V., Lanorsavanh, S., Souvannakoummai, K. & Somphone VL2188, grown on as cultivated material at RBGE acc. no. 20111043A, vouchered and selected as type as Newman, M.F. 2647 (holotype E, incl. spirit). 

Distribution & ecology. Zingiber nitens is only known from the type locality, where it grows in primary evergreen forest along a river at c. 570 m altitude.

Etymology. The epithet “nitens”, Latin for shining, refers to the shiny bracts of the inflorescence.

 M.F. Newman. 2015. A New Species of Zingiber (Zingiberaceae) from Lao P.D.R. Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore. 67(1); 123–127. DOI: 10.3850/S2382581215000137

[Botany • 2016] Strobilanthes agasthyamalana • An Enigmatic New Species (Acanthaceae) from Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve of Southern Western Ghats, India

Strobilanthes agasthyamalana  Sasidh., Dantas & Robi

Strobilanthes agasthyamalana is described and illustrated here from the Pongalapara region of Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve, southern Western Ghats. It is similar to S. foliosa and S. lanata in floral, seed and vegetative characters. However, it differs from S. foliosa by its adaxially hirsute and abaxially woolly leaves, bracts and bracteoles, pubescent corolla and villous style, and it differs from S. lanata by its glabrous stem, adaxially hirsute leaves, pubescent corolla, villous style and glabrous seeds.

Key Words: Kerala; kurinji; Strobilanthinae

Fig 2 Strobilanthes agasthyamalana.
A habit; B inflorescence enlarged; C mature inflorescence; D leaf portion enlarged; E tip of corolla lobe enlarged; F corolla split open; G gynoecium with style and stigma; H stamens. photos: A. J. ROBI. 

N. Sasidharan, P. Sujanapal, K. J. Dantas and A. J. Robi. 2016. An Enigmatic New Species, Strobilanthes agasthyamalana (Acanthaceae), from Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve of Southern Western Ghats, India.
 Kew Bulletin. 71:51. DOI: 10.1007/s12225-016-9667-0

[Paleontology • 2016] Litorosuchus somnii • A New Armored Archosauriform (Diapsida: Archosauromorpha) from the Marine Middle Triassic of China, with Implications for the Diverse Life Styles of Archosauriforms Prior to the Diversification of Archosauria

 Litorosuchus somnii 
 Li, Wu, Zhao, Nesbitt, Stocker & Wang, 2016  

Reptiles have a long history of transitioning from terrestrial to semi-aquatic or aquatic environments that stretches back at least 250 million years. Within Archosauria, both living crocodylians and birds have semi-aquatic members. Closer to the root of Archosauria and within the closest relatives of the clade, there is a growing body of evidence that early members of those clades had a semi-aquatic lifestyle. However, the morphological adaptations to a semi-aquatic environment remain equivocal in most cases. Here, we introduce a new Middle Triassic (245–235 Ma) archosauriform, Litorosuchus somnii, gen. et sp. nov., based on a nearly complete skeleton from the Zhuganpo Member (Ladinian [241–235 Ma]) of the Falang Formation, Yunnan, China. Our phylogenetic analyses suggest that Litorosuchus is a stem archosaur closely related to the aberrant Vancleavea just outside of Archosauria. The well-preserved skeleton of L. somnii bears a number of morphological characters consistent with other aquatic-adapted tetrapods including: a dorsally directed external naris, tall neural spines and elongate chevrons in an elongated tail, a short and broad scapula, webbed feet, long cervical vertebrae with long slender ribs, and an elongated rostrum with long and pointed teeth. Together these features represent one of the best-supported cases of a semi-aquatic mode of life for a stem archosaur. Together with Vancleavea campi, the discovery of L. somnii demonstrates a growing body of evidence that there was much more diversity in mode of life outside Archosauria. Furthermore, L. somnii helps interpret other possible character states consistent with a semi-aquatic mode of life for archosauriforms, including archosaurs.

Keywords: Adaptation; Morphology; Phylogeny; Reptile; Semi-aquatic

Systematic paleontology
Diapsida (Osborn 1903).
Archosauromorpha (von Huene 1946) sensu (Benton 1985).

Archosauriformes (Gauthier et al. 1988).

Litorosuchus somnii gen. et sp. nov.

Etymology: From Latin litoralis, indicating the coastal region where the archosauriform may have lived and Greek soukhos crocodile. From Latin somnium —“dream” in reference to a dream the first author (Li) had the day after he searched for a name for the animal, in which he saw an archosauriform wandering on the beach.


Holotype: IVPP V 16978, a nearly complete skull and skeleton embedded in a slab of limestone with much of its right lateral side exposed.

Locality and horizon: Jiyangshan, west of Huangnihe River, southeast Fuyuan County, Yunnan Province, China; Zhuganpo Member of the Falang Formation, Late Middle Triassic (Ladinian (241–235 Ma)) (Chen 1985).

Diagnosis: A medium-sized reptile (snout to tip of the tail length = ∼2.0 m), differing from other non-archosaur archosauriforms in having the following unique combination of character states: premaxilla bearing only two anteriorly positioned teeth with a short diastema anterior to and a long diastema posterior to the teeth, respectively; posterodorsal (maxillary) process of the premaxilla long and extending just posteriorly; nasal process of the premaxilla extending posteriorly beyond the posterodorsal margin of the external naris; large caniniform tooth in each tooth-bearing bone (shared with V. campi); midline length of the snout (measured from anterior edge of the orbit to the anterior tip of the premaxilla) more than twice that of the post-snout region (shared with species of Chanaresuchus, Q. mixtus, and D. fuyuanensis); T-shaped prefrontal with an elongate and bar-like descending process extending as ventrally as the lacrimal; lacrimal excluded by the prefrontal from the orbit; interfenestral region of the skull roof very narrow, less than one fifth of interorbital width; body completely covered by variously shaped osteoderms in certain regions (e.g., spine-like dorsal osteoderms on caudal vertebrae 10 to 13); tail long, about 60 % of the total length; vertical ridge present on the lateral surface of the neural spine of caudal vertebrae 9 to 35; cervical ribs slender and elongate; astragalus-calcaneum contact a simple butt joint, calcaneal tuber nearly absent. Asterisks denote autapomorphies.

Chun Li, Xiao-chun Wu, Li-jun Zhao, Sterling J. Nesbitt, Michelle R. Stocker and Li-Ting Wang. 2016.  A New Armored Archosauriform (Diapsida: Archosauromorpha) from the Marine Middle Triassic of China, with Implications for the Diverse Life Styles of Archosauriforms Prior to the Diversification of Archosauria.
The Science of Nature [Naturwissenschaften].  103: 95. DOI: 10.1007/s00114-016-1418-4


[Ichthyology • 2016] Monopterus luticolus • A New Species of Swamp Eel (Teleostei: Synbranchidae) from Cameroon

Monopterus luticolus 
Britz, Doherty-Bone, Kouete, Sykes & Gower, 2016

Monopterus luticolus, new species, is described from Cameroon. Most of the seven known individuals were discovered in inundated soil while digging for caecilian amphibians. Monopterus luticolus differs from the two other nominal African synbranchid species in the number of vertebrae and details of its osteology. The spatial dissociation of ceratobranchial 1 from hypobranchial 1 and its close association with hypobranchial 2 and ceratobranchial 2 demonstrate that M. luticolus is a member of the ‘Amphipnous group’.

Fig. 2. Monopterus luticolus, BMNH 2016.7.6.3, paratype, 158 mm TL; Cameroon: Mundame, life colouration. Note bright red colour caused by well vascularized skin. 

Etymology. The species name is derived from the Latin word for mud, lutus, and the verb colere, to dwell, referring to the habitat in which the new species was collected. A noun in apposition.

Distribution. Monopterus luticolus is known only from four localities in the proximity of Mount Cameroon at altitudes of 35-170 m above sea level (Fig. 5).

 Ralph Britz, Thomas Doherty-Bone, Marcel Kouete, Dan Sykes and David Gower. 2016. Monopterus luticolus, A New Species of Swamp Eel from Cameroon (Teleostei: Synbranchidae). Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwaters. 27(4); 309-323. 



[Botany • 2012] The Enigmatic Ginger Alpinia melichroa Rediscovered in southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia

Alpinia melichroa (K. Schum.) K. Schum.
 Alpinia sect. Botryamomum (K. Schum.) K. Schum.

Recent collections from Sulawesi allow an investigation of Amomum subgenus Botryamomum K. Schum. and its three species, Amomum chrysogynia K. Schum., Aechinosphaera K. Schum., and A. melichroum K. Schum. It is concluded that this subgenus contains a single species, Amomum melichroum K. Schum. Amomum subgenus Botryamomum and Amomum melichroum are lectotypified and Schumann's classification of them as Alpinia melichroa (K. Schum.) K. Schum. in Alpinia sect. Botryamomum (K. Schum.) K. Schum. is accepted. An amplified description including flowers and fruits is provided. Alpinia melichroa is narrowly distributed in southeastern Sulawesi; a conservation assessment is given. Sulawesi is the world's eleventh largest island with a land area greater than 180 000 km 2 . It lies in Wallacea which is the biogeographical region between Borneo and New Guinea, bounded by Wallace's line to the west and Lydekker's line to the east. Botanical exploration of Sulawesi is very far from com-plete. At the beginning of the 'Flora Malesiana' project, van Steenis (1950) estimated that only 18 herbarium specimens per 100 km 2 had been collected, a far lower number than in Peninsular Malaysia, Java, the Philippines and the Moluccas. Botanical collecting has been limited for most of the 60 years since van Steenis made his calculation and it is unlikely that the collecting density index is much higher today. This general lack of collecting effort is compounded in Zingiberaceae by other historical factors. The first significant collections from Sulawesi are those of Beccari, who visited the island in 1872–1874, leaving many valuable collections at FI. In the 1880s, Warburg made numerous collections in Sulawesi and was followed by the Sarasin cousins who made two long expeditions to Sulawesi in 1893–1896 and 1902–1903. At this period, K. M. Schumann was working on a revision of the Zingiberaceae for Engler's 'Das Pflanzenreich' (1904). Schumann worked at the Botanical Museum Berlin-Dahlem, where fire bombing in 1943 destroyed the wing of the herbarium which housed the monocotyledons. It seems that most of Warburg's and all of the Sarasins' collections were destroyed in this fire because stringent efforts by a number of experts in Zingiberaceae have located almost no surviving material.

 Nicky J. Sharp, Mark F. Newman, Yessi Santika, Gufrin and Axel Dalberg Poulsen. 2012. The Enigmatic Ginger Alpinia melichroa Rediscovered in southeast Sulawesi. Nordic Journal of Botany. 30(2); 163–167. DOI: 10.1111/j.1756-1051.2011.01122.x

[Ichthyology • 2016] Liniparhomaloptera macrostoma • A New Hillstream Loach (Teleostei: Gastromyzontidae) from Hunan Province, China

 Liniparhomaloptera macrostoma Wu, Xiu & Yang, 2016

Photograph by Jiahu Lan 

Liniparhomaloptera macrostoma, new species, is described from Hunan Province, south China. It is distinguished from its congers by having 8 branched dorsal-fin rays, more lateral line scales (82-100), relatively wider mouth and lower lip separated into two parts.

 Liniparhomaloptera macrostoma
Photograph by Jiahu Lan

Wu, Tiejun, Lihui Xiu and Jian Yang. 2016. Liniparhomaloptera macrostoma, A New Hillstream Loach from Hunan Province, China (Teleostei: Gastromyzontidae). Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters, An international journal for field-orientated ichthyology. 27(3); 275-282. 


Wednesday, December 7, 2016

[Botany • 2013] Curcuma leonidii • A New Species (Zingiberaceae) from southern Vietnam

Curcuma leonidii Škorničk. & Lưu

Photos: Lưu H. Trương     DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.126.1.4

Curcuma leonidii, a new species of Curcuma subg. Hitcheniopsis (Zingiberaceae) from southern Vietnam is described and illustrated here. Curcuma leonidii with flowers similar to some Stahlianthus-like species but inflorescences consisting of up to 8 green bracts and their arrangements conforming to usual ‘classical’ Curcuma-like species provides the much-awaited morphological link between the two genera, of which Stahlianthus have been, based on molecular results, recently proposed to be merged with Curcuma subg. Hitcheniopsis.

Keywords: Bù Gia Mập National Park, Curcuma subgenus Hitcheniopsis, Stahlianthus

FIGURE 1. Curcuma leonidii A. Habit. B. Inflorescence. C. Flower. D. Anther (front, back and side views, scale bar 5 mm).
Photos: Lưu Hồng Trương 

Similar to Curcuma harmandii Gagnep. (subg. Hitcheniopsis) in inflorescence consisting of green bracts with no obvious coma, but differs from it by having a more compact inflorescence (vs. more elongated in C. harmandii), white corolla lobes (vs. greenish), white oblanceolate-spathulate shape of the lateral staminodes (vs. greenish-white nearly linear) and white labellum with rich yellow well-defined median, the sides of the basal half of the median puberulent, patched with red, and nearly plain margin (vs. white labellum with yellow pubescent median bordered around with pink tinge, especially towards the apex, and crisped margin).

Etymology:— We dedicate this small but beautiful species to Prof. Leonid V. Averyanov, who first brought this species to our attention. Prof. Averyanov made exemplary contributions to the knowledge of Vietnamese Orchidaceae. With his main Vietnamese collaborators, Prof. Phan Kế Lộc and Dr. Nguyễn Tiến Hiệp, he also conducted multiple expeditions during past 20 years leading to great enhancement of general floristic and phytogeographic knowledge of Vietnam and adjacent areas of eastern Indochina (e.g. Averyanov et al. 2003).

  J. Leong-Škorničková and Hồng Trường Lưu. 2013. Curcuma leonidii, A New Species from southern Vietnam.  Phytotaxa. 126(1); 37–42.  DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.126.1.4

[Entomology • 2016] Allenipeplus spp. • A New Genus of the Subfamily Cillaeinae (Coleoptera, Nitidulidae) from the Philippines and New Guinea with Notes on the Taxonomy and Phylogeny of the Subfamily

Allenipeplus philippinensis 
Kovalev & Kirejtshuk, 2016  


Allenipeplus gen. nov. represented by Allenipeplus philippinensis sp. nov., type species (Philippines, Luzon), A. alius sp. nov. (Philippines, Mindoro), A. harmonicus sp. nov. (Philippines, Mindanao) and A. vitellinus sp. nov. (Indonesian New Guinea), is described. This new genus combines characters with a mosaic spread among other cillaeine genera. We present a wide comparison of genera among the subfamily Cillaeinae, making it possible to elaborate a detailed diagnosis of the new genus and trace some order in character patterns and propose a hypothesis on the relationship of this genus to other groups known from the Indo-Malayan and Australian Regions. A detailed diagnosis of the new genus and key to the new species are given. The Adocimus-complex of the related genera including Allenipeplus gen. nov., Adocimus Murray, 1864, Ithyphenes Murray, 1864, Platynema Ritsema, 1885 and probably Brittonema Kirejtshuk, 2011 is defined. Some notes on the taxonomy of the genera Liparopeplus Murray, 1864 and Xanthopeplus Fairmaire, 1880, stat. nov. are given. Additionally, designation of a lectotype for Liparopeplus colastoides Murray, 1864 is made.

Keywords: Coleoptera, sap beetles, new species, lectotype, Indo-Malayan and Australian Regions

Alexey V. Kovalev and Alexander G. Kirejtshuk. 2016. A New Genus of the Subfamily Cillaeinae (Coleoptera, Nitidulidae) from the Philippines and New Guinea with Notes on the Taxonomy and Phylogeny of the Subfamily.
Zootaxa. 4205(3); 226–242. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4205.3.3

[Botany • 2016] Rafflesia parvimaculata • A New Species of Rafflesia (Rafflesiaceae) from Peninsular Malaysia

Rafflesia parvimaculata 
Sofiyanti, Mat-Salleh, Khairil, Zuhailah, Mohd. Ros & Burslem 

FIGURE 2. Morphology of Rafflesia parvimaculata sp. nov. A. Mature bud, B. Male flower fully open, C. Inner side of floral perigone tube of male flower, D. Unbranched ramenta, E. Upper surface of disk showing processes of male flower, F. Lower surface of disk showing anthers (insert : pollen grain).
Scale bars: A, C 5 cm; B 10 cm; D 1 cm; E, F 2,5 cm (Specimens : A not collected; B–E LJ4 a1; F LJ4 f3).


The new species Rafflesia parvimaculata is described from Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia. This species is characterized by its numerous small white warts on the perigone lobes, and also by its slender, unbranched, capitate ramenta that are white in color and densely arranged inside the floral perigone tube. These unique characters distinguish R. parvimaculata from other Rafflesia species. The discovery of this new species brings the total number of Rafflesia species described from Peninsular Malaysia to five

Keywords: Rafflesia, Pahang, numerous warts, white ramenta, Eudicots

Rafflesia parvimaculata Sofiyanti, Mat-Salleh, Khairil, Zuhailah, Mohd. Ros & Burslem sp. nov.  

Rafflesia parvimaculata has numerous small warts on the perigone lobe and the window. These warts have a well-spaced arrangement on both structures. Ramenta are slender, unbranched, capitate, white in color and densely arranged. These unique characters are the characteristics of this new species.

 Type:─ MALAYSIA : Peninsular Malaysia, Pahang, Lata Jarum. 03 55.92º N, 102 01.99 º E. 29 December 2005, LJ4 a1. Male. (Holotype UKMB!).

Distribution and ecology: — Rafflesia parvimaculata is an endoparasitic species that grows on the root or stem of Tetrastigma sp. (Vitaceae). The specimen of Tetrastigma was not collected. This new species was collected in hill dipterocarp forest at an elevation of 200 to 400 m a.s.l. in the Lata Jarum Forest, Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia. A photograph of a Rafflesia from Perak (Peninsular Malaysia) (Courtesy of Siti Munirah M.Y, FRIM that has been deposited in the Kew Herbarium shows similar morphological characters to this new species, especially in the presence of numerous white small warts on the perigone lobes. Therefore we tentatively suggest that Rafflesia parvimaculata may also occur in Perak, although further exploration in this region is required to verify this conclusion.

Etymology:— The specific epithet refers to the numerous small warts on the perigone lobes. It is derived from the Latin parvi (small) and maculate (stain, spot, wart).

Phenology:— Flowers were observed by us in February, March, September and December. Variation in the size of buds observed in February suggests that the flower can be found throughout the year independently of season.

 Nery Sofiyanti, Kamarudin Mat-Salleh, Khairil Mahmud, Nor Zuhailah Mazlan,  Mohd. Ros. Albukharey Hasein and  David F.R.P. Burslem. 2016. Rafflesia parvimaculata (Rafflesiaceae), A New Species of Rafflesia from Peninsular Malaysia. Phytotaxa. 253(3);  DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.253.3.4