Saturday, June 25, 2016

[Herpetology • 2016] Oedipina capitalina • On the Taxonomy of Oedipina stuarti (Caudata: Plethodontidae), with Description of A New Species from Suburban Tegucigalpa, Honduras

Oedipina capitalina   

Solís, Espinal, Valle, O’Reilly, Itgen & Townsend, 2016

 We review the taxonomy and distribution of Oedipina stuarti in Honduras. Based on uncertainty related to the type locality, we restrict the taxon to the holotype, which we posit originated from a mine in the northern portion of the Department of Valle, Honduras. We subsequently describe a new species of Oedipina from Distrito Central, Departamento de Francisco Morazán, Honduras, based on newly collected material as well as one specimen previously designated as a paratype of O. stuarti. The new species is differentiated from all other members of the genus by having 19 costal grooves, 20 trunk vertebrae, 27–38 maxillary teeth, and 20–24 vomerine teeth, as well as by its phylogenetic relationships. Phylogenetic analysis suggests this species to be most closely related to O. ignea, O. motaguae, and O. stenopodia, three other members of the subgenus Oedipina known to inhabit dry deciduous forest habitats in Guatemala and Honduras. 

Key words: Amphibia, subgenus Oedipina, Oedipina sp. n., Francisco Morazán, Honduras, morphology.

 Figure 2. Adult male holotype of Oedipina capitalina sp. n. (CM 158386). Photo by MRE.

Figure 4. Juvenile paratypes of Oedipina capitalina sp. n.; A) UNAH 5670. B) CM 158387. Photos by MRE.
Figure 5. Adult female paratype of Oedipina capitalina sp. n. (CM 158388). Photo by MWI.

Solís, Espinal, Valle, O’Reilly, Itgen & Townsend. 2016. SALAMANDRA. 52(2) 

Distribution and natural history: O. capitalina sp. n. is known only from type locality, a suburban homestead yard adjacent to a heavily degraded headwater stream near the top of Cerro Grande in the central portion of the Departamento de Francisco Morazán (Fig. 7). This locality lies in the upper portion of the Choluteca Valley on the northern side of Tegucigalpa at 1,220 m a.s.l.. This denuded area lies within the Premontane Dry Forest formation (Holdridge 1967, Townsend & Wilson 2010) and likely supported both dry forest and pine-oak forest habitat prior to its being denuded. Specimens were collected during the day in June and September from underneath rotten logs and dead vegetation. 

Etymology: The specific name “capitalina” is a Honduran colloquialism that refers to a female inhabitant of the capital city of Tegucigalpa. This name is given in reference to the type locality’s proximity to the largest city in the country and is used as a noun in apposition.

José Mario Solís, Mario R. Espinal, Rony E. Valle, Carlos M. O’Reilly, Michael W. Itgen and Josiah H. Townsend. 2016.  On the Taxonomy of Oedipina stuarti (Caudata: Plethodontidae), with Description of A New Species from Suburban Tegucigalpa, Honduras. SALAMANDRA. 52(2); 125–133. 

Resumen. Revisamos la taxonomía y distribución de Oedipina stuarti, especie endémica de Honduras. Basados en la incertidumbre relacionada con la localidad tipo, restringimos el taxón del holotipo, lo cual postulamos su origen a partir de una mina en la parte norte del departamento de Valle, Honduras. Posteriormente Describimos una nueva especie de Oedipina del Distrito Central, Departamento de Francisco Morazán, Honduras, basado en el material recién colectado, así como un ejemplar previamente asignado como paratipo de O. stuarti. La nueva especie se diferencia de todos los demás miembros del género en tener 19 surcos costales, 20 vértebras, 27–34 dientes maxilares, y 20 dientes vomerinos, como también por sus relaciones filogenéticas. El análisis filogenético sugiere que esta especie está más estrechamente relacionada con O. ignea, O. motaguae, y O. stenopodia, otros tres miembros del subgénero Oedipina, habitantes conocidos del bosque caducifolio seco, hábitat en Guatemala y Honduras.

[Herpetology • 2016] Raorchestes silentvalley & R. lechiya • Two New Species of Raorchestes (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from the Silent Valley National Park in the Nilgiri Hills of the Western Ghats, India

Raorchestes silentvalley   &   R. lechiya 

Zachariah, Cyriac, Chandramohan, Ansil, Mathew, Raju & Abraham. 2016
  SALAMANDRA. 52(2); 63–76. ||

Two new species of rhacophorid bush frogs of the genus Raorchestes are described from the tropical montane wet forests in the Silent Valley National Park in the Nilgiri Hills, a high horst in the Western Ghats, India. Both species can be differentiated from their congeners by morphological and bioacoustic characters as well as differences in the mitochondrial 16S gene. Advertisement calls of the two new species are provided and tentative insights into the phylogenetic position discussed. Despite recent revisions of this genus from the Western Ghats, and the fact that the Silent Valley National Park is one of the most important and well-surveyed protected areas, the results of this study highlight the overlooked diversity in this area. 

Key words. Amphibia, bush frog, species description, South Asia, protected area, montane habitat, taxonomy.

Figure 3. Raorchestes silentvalley sp. n. (in life): A) vocalizing male; B) ventral coloration of a live individual (Paratype); C) spotted pattern on palpebral membrane; D) dorsal colour variation in other male individuals.
Figure 7. Raorchestes lechiya sp. n. (in life): A) male holotype (TNHM (H) 12.6.18/55); B) vocalizing male (not collected); C) male in amplexus (TNHM (H) 12.6.18/55) with a female (not collected).  

Raorchestes silentvalley sp. n. 
ZooBank LSID:
Suggested common name: Silent Valley bush frog 

Etymology: The specific epithet silentvalley refers to the Silent Valley National Park in Kerala, India, where the species was observed and collected. 

Distribution and Natural History: Thus far, Raorchestes silentvalley sp. n. has been recorded only from the montane wet forests (Figs 6A, B) of the southwestern slopes of the Nilgiri Hills (Fig. 1). The species was observed at Sispara and the higher areas of Thudukki, both of which are situated in the Silent Valley National Park in Kerala at altitudes ranging between 1,850 and 2,200 m a.s.l. Vocalising individuals were perched 1–2.5 m above the forest floor on the branch-es and foliage of understorey shrubs (dominated by Strobi­lanthes lawsonii and occasionally by S. lanata) (Fig. 6C) and small tree saplings, in May. Several vocalising males were observed with blood-sucking leeches attached to them.

Raorchestes lechiya sp. n. 
ZooBank LSID:
Suggested common name: Lechiyappan’s bush frog

Etymology: The species name is a tribute to the late Mr. Lechiyappan of the Mudugar tribe, a forest tracker at Silent Valley National Park. He was instrumental in the early conservation undertakings of the Silent Valley Movement, which eventually led to the declaration of the area as a National Park.

Distribution and Natural History: Raorchestes lechiya sp. n. was found only in the upper reaches of the southwestern slopes of the Nilgiri Hills (Fig. 1) at altitudes ranging from 1,800–2,200 m a.s.l. We found the species inhabiting the leaf litter and understorey vegetation in montane wet forests (Figs 6A, B). We also observed individuals vocalising from branches of shrubs at an average height of 1 m from the ground, as well as an amplectant pair (Fig. 7C). 

Anil Zachariah, Vivek Philip Cyriac , Bathrachalam Chandramohan, Basheer Rahmath Ansil, Jobin K. Mathew, David V. Raju and Robin Kurian Abraham. 2016. Two New Species of Raorchestes (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from the Silent Valley National Park in the Nilgiri Hills of the Western Ghats, India. SALAMANDRA. 52(2);  63–76.

[Crustacea • 2016] Macrobrachium spelaeus | กุ้งถ้ำพระวังแดง • A New Species of Stygobitic Freshwater Prawn (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) from northern Thailand

กุ้งถ้ำพระวังแดง | Macrobrachium spelaeus 
Cai & Vidthayanon, 2016


 A new species of stygobitic freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium spelaeus from Tham Phra Wang Daeng, Pitsanulok Province, in northern Thailand, is described and illustrated in detail. Morphological comparisons with allied epigean species M. dienbienphuense and known stygobitic congener M. poeti are given. The new species is characterised by its reduced eyes, smooth and slender second pereiopods, hairy chelae and short carpus of second pereiopods, and elongated telson.

Key words. New species, Macrobrachium, stygobitic, freshwater prawn, Thailand


Palaemonidae Rafinesque, 1815

Macrobrachium Bate, 1868
Macrobrachium spelaeus, new species

Colouration (live). Yellowish pale cephalothorax with pale yellow and brown visceral mass, rostrum translucent, eyes black, abdomen opaque with brownish hue dorsally. Hairs on chelae pale brown, antennas and appendages opaque.

Habitat. Macrobrachium spelaeus is known only from shallow (0.3–1 m depth) subterranean streams in the type locality, over 100 m from the cave entrance, at Tham Phra Wang Daeng of the Tham Phra Karst in Klong Chompu area of Thung Salaeng Luang National Park.

Etymology. The new species is named spelaeus (L., caved-welling), after its stygobitic habit.

Yixiong Cai and Chavalit Vidthayanon. 2016. Macrobrachium spelaeus, A New Species of Stygobitic Freshwater Prawn from Thailand (Decapoda: Palaemonidae).  RAFFLES BULLETIN OF ZOOLOGY. 64: 117–122. 

กุ้งถ้ำพระวังแดง  อีกหนึ่งชนิดใหม่ จากถ้ำพระวังแดง อช. ทุ่งแสลงหลวง พิษณุโลก ยังมีอีกหลาย species ที่ยังไม่มีการสำรวจในภูมินิเวศเขาหินปูนนี้ 

[Ichthyology • 2016] Revised Diagnosis of the Genus Gonorhynchus McClelland (Cyprinidae: Labeonini) with Redescription of G. latius (Hamilton) and Revalidation of G. wattanah (Sykes)


A new diagnosis of the genus Gonorhynchus McClelland 1838 from South Asia is proposed. Seven species are contained in the genus: G. latius (Hamilton 1822), G. diplochilus (Heckel 1838), G. wattanah (Sykes 1839), G. macmahoni (Zugmayer 1912), G. burmanicus (Hora 1936), G. bicornis (Wu 1977), and G. periyarensis (Menon & Jacob 1996). Gonorhynchus latius, a senior synonym of the type species G. brevis M’Clelland 1839 is redescribed. Crossocheilus gohama (M’Clelland 1839) and Crossochilus rostratus Günther 1868 are considered junior synonyms of G. latius, and a neotype is designated for G. latius. Gonorhynchus wattanah (Sykes 1839) from the Krishna and Godavari River basins in western India is revalidated and redescribed with the designation of a neotype. Akrokolioplax Zhang & Kottelat 2006 is a junior synonym of Gonorhynchus.

Keywords: Pisces, minnows, Crossocheilus latius, Crossocheilus diplochilus, South Asia

 Patrick J. Ciccotto and Lawrence M. Page. 2016. Revised Diagnosis of the Genus Gonorhynchus McClelland (Teleostei: Cyprinidae: Labeonini) with Redescription of G. latius (Hamilton) and Revalidation of G. wattanah (Sykes)Zootaxa. 4127(3): 471–492. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4127.3.4

[Herpetology • 2016] Larval Morphology and Complex Vocal Repertoire of Rhacophorus helenae (Anura: Rhacophoridae), A Rare Flying Frog from southern Vietnam

Rhacophorus helenae 


We present new data on the distribution, reproduction, larval morphology and vocalization of Rhacophorus helenae (Rhacophoridae), a narrowly distributed frog from southern Vietnam. Two new populations of R. helenae were discovered during field surveys in the lowland monsoon forests in Dong Nai and Ba Ria–Vung Tau provinces in 2010–2013. Spawning was observed in May 2013. Egg clutches containing small (2.3±0.1 mm) unpigmented eggs were embedded in a foam nest and suspended high on trees above temporary ponds. The tadpoles of R. helenae have a morphology typical of pond-dwelling Rhacophorus larvae with a moderate tail length and a labial tooth row formula of 5(2–5)/3. Postmetamorphic juveniles differed from adult frogs in the features of their coloration and less developed webbing. The complex vocal repertoire of R. helenae included five types of tonal, wideband and pulsed calls and several transitional signal types differentiated by frequency and amplitude parameters. Calls were uttered as singular signals (pulsed calls) or within non-stereotyped series of variable duration (other call types). The complex structure of the advertisement call markedly distinguishes R. helenae from other members of the Rhacophorus reinwardtii species complex.

Keywords: Amphibia, amphibians, advertisement call, DNA barcoding, mouthparts, Rhacophorus reinwardtii species complex, Southeast Asia, tadpole

FIGURE 5. Differences in coloration (AB) and webbing development (CD) between juvenile (approximately one month after the completion of metamorphosis) and adult Rhacophorus helenae.
Photographs by V. Trounov. 

Anna B. Vassilieva, Svetlana S. Gogoleva and Nikolay Jr. A. Poyarkov. 2016. Larval Morphology and Complex Vocal Repertoire of Rhacophorus helenae (Anura: Rhacophoridae), A Rare Flying Frog from Vietnam. Zootaxa. 4127(3);  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4127.3.6

[Ichthyology • 2016] Protocheirodon gen. nov. • A New Genus of Characidae (Characiformes) with the Redescription of the Poorly Known Protocheirodon pi

Protocheirodon pi 
 (Vari, 1978) DOI: 10.1590/1982-0224-20150154


Protocheirodon, a new genus of the Characidae, is proposed to include a species previously assigned to Leptagoniates . This action is supported by molecular and morphological phylogenetic hypotheses that place Protocheirodon pi as the sister group of the remaining tribes in the Cheirodontinae versus the traditional assignment of the species to the Aphyocharacinae. The phylogenetic position of Protocheirodon is recognized as a new tribe, the Protocheirodontini. Protocheirodon pi , originally described based on a small number of specimens from a single location in the río Mamoré basin in the southwestern Amazon, is redescribed on the basis of larger series of specimens from the western and central portions of the Amazon basin.

Key words: Aphyocharacinae; Amazon basin; Cheirodontinae; Leptagoniates; Taxonomy

Fig. 2 Protocheirodon pi, (A) CAS 41749, 29.5 mm SL; Colombia, Amazonas, Isla de Santa Sofia II, ca. 20 mi (= 32 km) NW of Leticia; (B) live specimen from aquarium without locality information.
Scale bar = 5 mm. Photo credits: (A) Sandra Raredon (USNM) and (B) Martin and Peter Hoffmann. DOI: 10.1590/1982-0224-20150154


Protocheirodon, new genus

Type species. Protocheirodon pi (Vari, 1978).

Diagnosis. Protocheirodon possesses the four synapomorphies proposed for the Cheirodontinae by Malabarba (1998): 1) the presence of a pseudotympanum, a hiatus in the body wall musculature lateral to at least a portion of the anterior chamber of the swimbladder; 2) the lack of a dark humeral spot; 3) the possession of pedunculate dentition; and 4) the presence of only a single row of regularly arranged premaxillary teeth. Protocheirodon differs from all other genera of the Cheirodontinae and indeed members of the Characiformes by the unique form of the swimbladder which has a smaller rotund anterior chamber and the posteriorly chamber elaborated into two vertically elongate, side by side, slightly inclined chambers. These modifications yield a unique overall pi (π)-shaped structure (Vari, 1978) (Fig. 2). This trenchant difference versus other cheirodontins is supplemented by a diagnostic combination of meristic, morphometric and details of pigmentation.

Description. As Protocheirodon is a monotypic genus, its description corresponds to the redescription of the type-species, Protocheirodon pi (Vari, 1978).

Etymology. Proto from Greek prōto , meaning first or earliest form of, in reference to the phylogenetic position of the species as sister to all remaining members of the Cheirodontinae, and cheirodon, an allusion to the genus Cheirodon and subfamily Cheirodontinae. Gender masculine.

Protocheirodon pi (Vari, 1978)
Leptagoniates pi Vari, 1978: 185, figs. 1-2 (original description; río Mamoré, Bolivia). -Malabarba, 1998: 229 (in phylogeny of Cheirodontinae). Lima et al., 2003: 144 (in list of incertae sedis species in Characidae). -Bogotá-Gregory & Maldonado-Ocampo, 2006: 66 (in list of fishes in Colombian Amazon). -Maldonado-Ocampo et al. , 2008: 170 (Colombia, Amazon; in checklist of freshwater fishes of Colombia). -Duarte et al., 2010: 323 (in list of fishes from lower rio Purus, Brazil). Ortega et al., 2010: 36 (in list of freshwater fishes of Peru). -Lima et al. , 2013: 299 (in list of fishes from rio Madeira, Brazil). -Tagliacollo et al., 2012: 305 (in molecular phylogeny of Aphyocharacinae). -Mariguela et al., 2013: 29 (in molecular phylogeny of Cheirodontinae).

Diagnosis. As for Protocheirodon above.

Description. Summary morphometrics in Table 1. Body distinctly compressed and moderately elongate with greatest depth immediately anterior to dorsal-fin origin. Dorsal profile of head convex from margin of upper lip to vertical through anterior margin of orbit and then very slightly concave to rear of head. Predorsal profile of body straight to very slightly sigmoid. Dorsal profile strongly posteroventrally angled along dorsal-fin base and then straight and less posteroventrally angled to caudal peduncle. Ventral profile of head and body gently convex from tip of lower jaw to anal-fin origin, straight and posterodorsally angled along anal-fin base to caudal peduncle.

Richard P. Vari, Bruno F. Melo and Claudio Oliveira. 2016. Protocheirodon, A New Genus of Characidae (Teleostei: Characiformes) with the Redescription of the Poorly Known Protocheirodon pi.  Neotrop. ichthyol. 14(2); DOI: 10.1590/1982-0224-20150154 

RESUMO: Protocheirodon, um gênero novo de Characidae é proposto para incluir uma espécie previamente alocada em Leptagoniates . Esta decisão é suportada por hipóteses filogenéticas moleculares e morfológicas que apontam Protocheirodon pi como grupo-irmão das demais tribos de Cheirodontinae, ao invés da alocação tradicional em Aphyocharacinae. A posição filogenética de Protocheirodon é reconhecida como uma tribo nova, Protocheirodontini. Protocheirodon pi , originalmente descrito com base em poucos exemplares de uma única localidade na bacia do rio Mamoré, no sudoeste da Amazônia, é redescrito com base em grandes séries de espécimes coletados em rios das porções centrais e ocidentais da bacia do rio Amazonas.

[Botany • 2016] Epirixanthes confusa • A New Species of Epirixanthes (Polygalaceaea) from Imbak Canyon, Sabah, Borneo

Epirixanthes confusa 
Tsukaya, M. Suleiman & H. Okada
DOI:  10.11646/phytotaxa.266.2.9 


The mycoheterotrophic genus Epirixanthes Blume is a small genus of Polygalaceae. Here, we describe a new species of EpirixanthesEpirixanthes confusa Tsukaya, M. Suleiman & H. Okada, discovered in the mostly unexplored Imbak Canyon, Sabah, Borneo. Along with photographs and illustrations of this new species, a revised key to the genus is presented.

Keywords: Borneo, Epirixanthes, Imbak Canyon, Malaysia, mycoheterotrophic plant, Polygalaceae, Sabah, Eudicots

Taxonomic Treatment

Epirixanthes confusa Tsukaya, M. Suleiman & H. Okada, sp. nov. (Figs. 1, 2)

Epirixanthes confusa differs from the other members of Epirixanthes in having the following features: persistent bracts even after fruit maturation, no bracteole, and pointed inflorescence apices.

Type:— Malaysia. Sabah: Imbak Canyon Conservation Area, along the Ridge Trail, alt. 622 m, 9 August 2015, Tsukaya, H. Okada, H., Hayashi, T. & Suleiman, M., No. TOH-07 (Holo- BORH, iso- TI, KYO).

Distribution:— Found in the understories of dipterocarp forest, in particular along ridges. At present, E. confusa is known to occur only in Imbak Canyon, Sabah, Borneo. However, our preliminary surveys on herbarium specimens deposited in BO suggested that some specimens collected from Java, Indonesia, annotated as “E. elongata”, are actually E. confusa (for example, BO-1791084, BO-1794915, BO-1794902, BO-1478688, BO-1478690, BO-1794913 and BO-1794910). Because E. confusa is easily mis-identified as E. elongata, detailed re-examinations of herbarium specimens are required to reveal its whole distribution

 Etymology:— The species name E. confusa denotes the confusion between this species and E. elongata

Hirokazu Tsukaya. Monica Suleiman and Hiroshi Okada. 2016. A New Species of Epirixanthes (Polygalaceaea) from Imbak Canyon, Sabah, Borneo. Phytotaxa. 266(2); DOI:  10.11646/phytotaxa.266.2.9

[Botany • 2016] Callerya chlorantha & C. tenasserimensis • Two New Species of Callerya Endl. (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae) from Thailand


Callerya chlorantha and C. tenasserimensis, here illustrated and described as new to science, are found in dry deciduous or bamboo forest in Kanchanaburi and Ratchaburi provinces in Thailand. Callerya chlorantha, characterized by having pale green flowers that are rare in the genus, grows on limestone. This species is considered as Data Deficient (DD) at this time because there are not yet sufficient data about its distribution, abundance or threats. Callerya tenasserimensis has glabrous leaves and stems and rather small, purple or maroon flowers with golden-brown hairs on the calyx and abaxial side of the standard petal. The conservation status of this species is assessed as Vulnerable (VU).

Keywords: Callerya chloranthaCallerya tenasserimensis, Fabaceae, endemic, golden-brown hairs, pale green flower, Kanchanaburi, Ratchaburi, Eudicots


เครือข้าวเม่า หรือ เครือข้าวเขียว Callerya chlorantha Mattapha & Sirich.

เครือแซะตะนาวศรี Callerya tenasserimensis Mattapha & Sirich.

FIGURE 2. Callerya chlorantha: A. habitat; B. flowers and inflorescences; C. flowers (closed up), all from Phutthai and Sirichamorn 2014-1 (photos Y. Sirichamorn and T. Phutthai).
Callerya tenasserimensis: D. habitat; E. flowers and inflorescences; F. flowers (closed up) all from Sirichamorn 2015-13 (photos Y. Sirichamorn). 


Yotsawate Sirichamorn, Henrik Balslev and Sawai Mattapha. 2016. Two New Species of Callerya Endl. (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae) from Thailand. Phytotaxa. 263(1); DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.263.1.4

Friday, June 24, 2016

[Ornithology / Evolution • 2016] The Evolution of Mimicry of Friarbirds by Orioles (Aves: Passeriformes) in Australo-Pacific Archipelagos

Figure 1. Distribution of coexisting friarbirds  (Philemonand brown orioles (Orioluswith the phylogeny of brown orioles oriented to match the phylogeny of friarbirds (see also electronic supplementary material, figures S3–S5 for additional phylogenetic information). Species names are coloured according to island distributions. To the right of taxon names are indicated distributions (Au, Australia; NG , New Guinea) followed by a number which indicates coexistence. For example, Philemon brassi (NG, 1) occurs in New Guinea and is sympatric with Oriolus szalayi (NG, 1,5,6,9).
Timescales (in million years) are indicated below the phylogenies.
Illustrations from Handbook of the Birds of the World [del Hoyo. et. al, 2008]. Asterisks at nodes indicate posterior probabilities of 0.99–1.00.    DOI:  10.1098/rspb.2016.0409 


Observations by Alfred Wallace and Jared Diamond of plumage similarities between co-occurring orioles (Oriolus) and friarbirds (Philemon) in the Malay archipelago led them to conclude that the former represent visual mimics of the latter. Here, we use molecular phylogenies and plumage reflectance measurements to test several key predictions of the mimicry hypothesis. We show that friarbirds originated before brown orioles, that the two groups did not co-speciate, although there is one plausible instance of co-speciation among species on the neighbouring Moluccan islands of Buru and Seram. Furthermore, we show that greater size disparity between model and mimic and a longer history of co-occurrence have resulted in a stronger plumage similarity (mimicry). This suggests that resemblance between orioles and friarbirds represents mimicry and that colonization of islands by brown orioles has been facilitated by their ability to mimic the aggressive friarbirds.

 Keywords: Australo-Papua, coexistence, community assembly, competition, island biogeography, molecular phylogeny

We present a detailed analysis of a classic example of visual mimicry in birds in Australo-Papua and the surroundingarchipelagos, using nearly complete dated molecular sub-species-level phylogenies, and drawing on several lines ofevidence to determine how brown orioles (the mimics) evolvedin relation to friarbirds (the model). Consistent with the mimicry hypothesis, our analyses show that friarbirds evolved before brown orioles and that they speciated and dispersed largely independently of each  other  in  Australo-Papua  and the surrounding archipelagos. In the depauperate island environments, improved mimicry probably facilitated the persistence of brown orioles. Our data also show that orioles tend to bettermatch the colour of sympatric friarbirds than allopatric friarbirds. Finally, a longer history of co-occurrence and a larger size difference between model and mimic lead to better mimicry, ultimately allowing for the existence of both friarbirds and orioles on Wallacean islands. 

Knud Andreas Jønsson, Kaspar Delhey, George Sangster, Per G. P. Ericson and Martin Irestedt. 2016. The Evolution of Mimicry of Friarbirds by Orioles (Aves: Passeriformes) in Australo-Pacific Archipelagos.  Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 283:20160409. DOI:  10.1098/rspb.2016.0409

[Botany • 2016] Tectaria × hongkongensis • A New Hybrid of Tectaria (Tectariaceae) from Hong Kong, southern China

 Tectaria × hongkongensis  S.Y. Dong

FIGURE 2. Tectaria × hongkongensis in culture.
A. Habit. B. Scales on basal part of a stipe. C. Abaxial view of fertile lamina. DE. Sporangia containing no spores (spores aborted).


A new natural hybridTectaria × hongkongensis (Tectariaceae), is described and illustrated from Hong Kong, China. It is a sterile hybrid supported by the abortive spores and cytological data [2n = 120 (3x)]. This hybrid is morphologically somewhat similar to T. zeilanica in the small size of plants, strongly dimorphic leaves, the shape of sterile fronds, and acrostichoid sporangia. Molecular data indicate its maternal parent is probably TharlandiiTectaria × hongkongensis is the first hybrid confirmed by morphological and cytological evidence in East Asia.

Keywords: chromosome number, Hong Kong, hybrid origin, Pteridophytes, China

Hui-Guo Zhao and Shi-Yong Dong. 2016. A New Hybrid of Tectaria (Tectariaceae) from southern China.  Phytotaxa. 266(3); 213–218. DOI:  10.11646/phytotaxa.266.3.5

[Paleontology • 2016] Pangupterus liui • A New Pterodactyloid Pterosaur from the Early Cretaceous of the western part of Liaoning Province, northeastern China

Pangupterus liui
Lü, Liu, Pan & Shen, 2016

Pangupterus liui gen. et sp. nov. from the Jiufotang Formation of Sihedang, Lingyuan City, Liaoning Province is erected based on a nearly complete lower jaw. It is characterized by having a total of 36 slender curved teeth with sharp tips, forming a distinct fish-grabbing mechanism; the teeth are well-spaced and are circular in section; the length ratio of the mandibular symphysis to the whole jaw is 20%; and the ratio of the tooth root width to tooth length is 12%. Toothed pterosaurs make up about 56.3% of the pterosaur assemblage from the Jiufotang Formation, which indicates that toothed forms played a key role in the ecosystem.

Key words: Pterosauria; Pangupterus; Jiufotang Formation; western Liaoning

Lü Junchang, Liu Cunyu, Pan Lijun and Shen Caizhi. 2016. A New Pterodactyloid Pterosaur from the Early Cretaceous of the western part of Liaoning Province, northeastern China. [J].Acta Geologica Sinica. 90(3); 777-782. 

[Mammalogy / Behaviour • 2016] Watering Holes: The Use of Arboreal Sources of Drinking Water by Old World Monkeys and Apes

Fig. 2. The six species displaying arboreal drinking behaviours, described in this study.
(A) Western hoolock gibbon Hoolock hoolock, (B) Northern pig-tailed macaque Macaca leonina, (C) Bonnet macaque Macaca radiata, (D) Central Himalayan langur Semnopithecus schistaceus, (E) Chimpanzee Pan troglodytes, (F) Siamang Symphalangus syndactylus, and (G) Bornean orangutan Pongo pygmaeus.

• Arboreal primates often use dipping-and-licking to drink water from tree-holes.
• Rarely reported, we describe this strategy in eight Old World primate species.
• Seasonal or habitat-specific water shortage may lead to this unusual behaviour.
• Other driving factors may be predator/human conflict avoidance or medicinal benefits.
• Effects of this strategy on population survival and health need to be explored.

Water is one of the most important components of an animal’s diet, as it is essential for life. Primates, as do most animals, procure water directly from standing or free-flowing sources such as pools, ponds and rivers, or indirectly by the ingestion of certain plant parts. The latter is frequently described as the main source of water for predominantly arboreal species. However, in addition to these, many species are known to drink water accumulated in tree-holes. This has been commonly observed in several arboreal New World primate species, but rarely reported systematically from Old World primates. Here, we report observations of this behaviour from eight great ape and Old World monkey species, namely chimpanzee, orangutan, siamang, western hoolock gibbon, northern pig-tailed macaque, bonnet macaque, rhesus macaque and the central Himalayan langur. We hypothesise three possible reasons why these primates drink water from tree-holes: (1) coping with seasonal or habitat-specific water shortages, (2) predator/human conflict avoidance, and (3) potential medicinal benefits. We also suggest some alternative hypotheses that should be tested in future studies. This behaviour is likely to be more prevalent than currently thought, and may have significant, previously unknown, influences on primate survival and health, warranting further detailed studies.

Keywords: Primate; tree-hole; dipping-and-licking; seasonal water; predator avoidance; self medication

Narayan Sharma, Michael A. Huffman, Shreejata Gupta, Himani Nautiyal, Renata Mendonça, Luca Morino and Anindya Sinha. 2016. Watering Holes: The Use of Arboreal Sources of Drinking Water by Old World Monkeys and Apes. Behavioural Processes.   DOI:  10.1016/j.beproc.2016.05.006